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Hairs are keratinized elongated

structures derived from invaginations of

epidermis and project out from most of

the body surface


Length : range from <1mm to > 1 meter.

Average uncut scalp hair : 25 – 100 cm.

       (exceptionally 170 cm)

Width : from 0.005 to 0.06mm.

Growth rate: about 1 cm/ month (terminal hair).

Hair Growth-

Anagen—hair is actively growing; lasts up to 5 years

  Catagen—hair is not growing; a resting phase

  Telogen—follicle is getting ready to push the hair out; lasts                                        

     two to six months


Hair grows about 0.4 mm per day, or 1 cm per month

‡The process of hair growth has three phases:
‡Anagen: This is the active growth stage of the hair fiber and can last from 2- 7 years. At any given moment 80-85% of our hair is in the anagen phase.
‡Catagen: Sometimes referred to as the transitional phase, which is when hair growth begins to “shut down” and stop activity. It generally lasts 10- 20 days.
‡Telogen: This occurs when hair growth is completely at rest and the hair fiber falls out. At any given time, 10-15 % of our hair is in the telogen phase, which generally lasts 100 days for scalp hair. After the telogen phase, the hair growth process starts over again to the anagen phase.

Hair Damage-

‡Cuticle, the outer layer of the hair shaft, defines smoothness and shininess.  The hair cuticle may get damaged by chemical processes, overexposure to sunlight (UV rays), too much heat from a dryer, abusive brushing and combing, over-chlorinated swimming pool water, etc.
‡Damaged hair/cuticles should be treated well with conditioners because cuticles cannot repair themselves once damaged.

Hair Raising Facts:

‡An average scalp has 100,000-150,000 hairs (about 1000 per square inch)
‡Hair is so strong that each hair can withstand the strain of 100 grams (3.5 ounces). An average head of hair could hold 10-15 tons if only the scalp was strong enough!
‡Human hair grows autonomously, that is each hair is on its own individual cycle. If all our hair were on the same cycle, we would molt!
‡Hair has the highest rate of mitosis (cell division). An average hair grows 0.3 mm a day and 1 cm per month. 35 meters of hair fiber is produced every day on the average adult scalp.
‡Less than 4% of the world’s population has naturally red hair
‡Most people lose between 50-100 hairs per day
‡Over 50% of men by age 50 have male pattern hair loss.
‡Forty percent of women by the time they reach menopause will have female pattern (hereditary) hair loss.
‡Hormone imbalance and crash dieting can trigger temporary hair loss.

Information we want you to know:

•The average life span of hair is   4-6 years
•Everyone sheds 75-100 hairs per   day
•Hair does not grow after death
•Eyebrows and eyelashes are   replaced every 4-5 months



Ectodermal origin-

1.  Hair bud – develops from epidermis and     penetrates the dermis. 

2.  Hair shaft – grows from cells in the      centre of hair bud.

3.  Inner root sheath – develops from cells in the

                 periphery of hair bud.


Hair  color is determined by melanocytes.
 Melanocytes are present in the bulb.
 Melanocytes feed melanosomes mainly to

     the medulla and cortex.

 Melanocytic follicles produce melanin- 

  .  eumelanin (dominant in brown-black hairs)

    .  phaeomelanin (dominant in red-blond hairs)

Mesodermal origin: Outer root sheath.

  First hair come is lanugo hair at eyebrow and   upper lip at twelve weeks  of gestation

 Greying of hair – due to decreased  

     number and activities of melanocytes.

  Vitiligo – due to destruction of 


  Albinism – due to inactivity of



•Absence or loss of hair especially of the scalp.
•Pathophysiology of hair loss :

          1.  Production failure –

      ¨  Failure to produce or continue to

   ¨  produce a normal hair follicle.

2.  Aberration of –

   ¨   Normal hair cycle.

   ¨   Production of a normal hair shaft.

3. Destruction of –

   ¨  Hair follicle.

•Abnormal hair loss
•Most common types
–Androgenic alopecia
–Alopecia areata
–Postpartum alopecia
–Over 63 million people in our country suffer from abnormal hair loss

Causes of Hair Loss-







Poor circulation  Stress

Thyroid disease  High blood pressure

Iron deficiency  Pregnancy

Liver malfunction  Chemotherapy 

B & vitamin deficiencies  Skin Disease

Large doses of Vitamin A    High fever

Cholesterol  Sudden weight loss

Alcohol and caffeine  Medications

Poor circulation  Stress

Thyroid disease  High blood pressure

Iron deficiency  Pregnancy

Liver malfunction  Chemotherapy 

B & vitamin deficiencies  Skin Disease

Large doses of Vitamin A    High fever

Cholesterol  Sudden weight loss

Alcohol and caffeine  Medications


Higher incidence of alopecia areata in

patients of-

  1.  Atopic dermatitis.

  2.  Autoimmune disease –

       *  SLE

       *  Thyroiditis.

       *    Myasthenia     gravis.

       *    Vitiligo.

  3.  Lichen planus.

  4.  Down syndrome.


1.  Tinea capitis.

  2.  Trichotilomania.

  3.  Secondary syphilis

   4.  Congenital triangular alopecia.

  5.  Alopecia neoplastica.

  6.  Early lupus erythematosus.



Øouter layer

  ~ shed

  ~ replaced by new cells  

ØHealthy, normal scalp cells fall off naturally

  ~ small, dry flakes

  ~ without being noticed

Ødry scalp-(not dandruff)

  ~ flakes much smaller

  ~ less noticeable flakes

Øcontact dermatitis, sunburn, or   extreme age
Øworse in cold, dry climates

Medical term for dandruff:


Øexcessive production and   accumulation of skin cells
Ølarge visible clumps of cells
dandruff is the result of a fungus called malassezia

Dry dandruff is the result of a sluggish scalp caused by:

• poor circulation
• lack of nerve stimulation
• improper diet
•emotional and glandular disturbances
•poor personal hygiene

Treatments include:

Ø antidandruff shampoos
Ø conditioners
Ø“medicated” topical lotions
Ø“Antiseptic” scalp lotions
Ø scalp treatments
Ø regular scalp massage

Add: medicated/antiseptic

“seborrheic dermatisis”

(if torn off bleeding or oozing of the sebum results)

•When accompanied by redness and   inflammation is:  
•Can be found in eyebrows/beards
•Client with these two conditions (Pityriasis steatoides and seborrheic dermatitis) must be referred to a   physician for medical treatment




•itching, scales, and sometimes,   painful circular lesions
•Several may be present at the same   time
•A fungal (vegetable) organism is not   an animal parasite
•All forms are contagious
•Easily transmitted

FYI: Infected skin scales and hairs that contain the fungi   are known to spread the disease

•Swimming pools
•Unsanitary personal articles
•Practicing approved sanitation and   disinfection procedures will help   prevent the spread of   this disease

Q. How do we determine what the amount of density is?

a. Use fingers to feel the hair
b. Look at the scalp area
c. Ask the client how dense they think their hair is
d. Ask another stylist to help us   decide


Øability of the hair to absorb   moisture
Øcondition of the cuticle layer
Øcompact cuticle layer

  ~ resistant to penetration

  referred to as Hydrophobic

(phobic---does not like)

Øporous hair/raised cuticle

   ~ easily absorbs moisture

  ~Referred to as Hydrophilic

(philic---attracted to)

Ølow porosity

  ~ resistant

  ~ more alkaline solution

  ~ longer processing time

Øalkaline solutions

  ~ raise the cuticle

Øpermit uniform

  ~ saturation and processing

ØHigh porosity

  ~ overly porous

result of over processing 


  ~ dry  

  ~ fragile and brittle

less alkaline solutions   (lower pH)



Ø inactive sebaceous glands
Ø dry climate
Øhair appears dull, dry and   lifeless
Ø moisturizers and emollients
ØAvoid frequent



  ~ strong soaps

  ~ detergents

  ~ products with high   alcohol content

ØDry hair

  ~not overly-porous



Øgreasy buildup on scalp
Øoily coating
Øimproper shampooing
Øoveractive sebaceous glands
Ønormalizing shampoo
ØWell-balanced diet
ØRegular shampooing
ØGood personal hygiene


will control oily hair and scalp

Healthy Hair, Happy Clients